To optimize post-graduate competency-based assessment for medical trainees, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education initiated a sub-specialty-specific revision of the existing Milestones 1.0 assessment framework in 2016. This effort was intended to increase both the effectiveness and accessibility of the assessment tools by incorporating specialty-specific performance expectations for medical knowledge and patient care competencies; decreasing item length and complexity; minimizing inconsistencies across specialties through the development of common "harmonized" milestones; and providing supplemental materials, including examples of expected behaviors at each developmental level, suggested assessment strategies, and relevant resources. This manuscript describes the efforts of the Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine Milestones 2.0 Working Group, outlines the overall intent of Milestones 2.0, compares the novel Milestones to the original version, and details the materials contained in the novel supplemental guide. This new tool should enhance NPM fellow assessment and professional development while maintaining consistent performance expectations across specialties.

DOI 10.1038/S41372-023-01683-8