BACKGROUND: Alterations in both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA genes affect mitochondria function, causing a range of liver-based conditions termed mitochondrial hepatopathies (MH), which are subcategorized as mtDNA depletion, RNA translation, mtDNA deletion, and enzymatic disorders. We aim to enhance the understanding of pathogenesis and natural history of MH. METHODS: We analyzed data from patients with MH phenotypes to identify genetic causes, characterize the spectrum of clinical presentation, and determine outcomes. RESULTS: Three enrollment phenotypes, that is, acute liver failure (ALF, n = 37), chronic liver disease (Chronic, n = 40), and post-liver transplant (n = 9), were analyzed. Patients with ALF were younger [median 0.8 y (range, 0.0, 9.4) vs 3.4 y (0.2, 18.6), p < 0.001] with fewer neurodevelopmental delays (40.0% vs 81.3%, p < 0.001) versus Chronic. Comprehensive testing was performed more often in Chronic than ALF (90.0% vs 43.2%); however, etiology was identified more often in ALF (81.3% vs 61.1%) with mtDNA depletion being most common (ALF: 77% vs Chronic: 41%). Of the sequenced cohort (n = 60), 63% had an identified mitochondrial disorder. Cluster analysis identified a subset without an underlying genetic etiology, despite comprehensive testing. Liver transplant-free survival was 40% at 2 years (ALF vs Chronic, 16% vs 65%, p < 0.001). Eighteen (21%) underwent transplantation. With 33 patient-years of follow-up after the transplant, 3 deaths were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Differences between ALF and Chronic MH phenotypes included age at diagnosis, systemic involvement, transplant-free survival, and genetic etiology, underscoring the need for ultra-rapid sequencing in the appropriate clinical setting. Cluster analysis revealed a group meeting enrollment criteria but without an identified genetic or enzymatic diagnosis, highlighting the need to identify other etiologies. behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

DOI 10.1097/HC9.0000000000000139