OBJECTIVE: Turner syndrome (TS) is associated with abnormalities across several organ systems, including the visual system. There is a relative paucity of literature describing ophthalmic manifestations of TS. We sought to investigate eye manifestations in our cross-sectional population of pediatric TS patients. METHODS: All patients managed by the TS program of a tertiary children's hospital were identified. Patients with documentation of at least one eye exam were included for analysis. Chart review was retrospectively performed to identify all documented ocular abnormalities as well as patient demographics, including TS karyotype. Statistical analysis was performed to identify any association between karyotype and ocular abnormality. RESULTS: A total of 187 patients with TS were identified. The mean age of the cohort was 14.3 ± 7.2 years. Ametropia was the most common ocular abnormality, occurring in 79 patients (42%), followed by strabismus in 25 (13%). Of the patients with strabismus, 17 had exotropia and 8 had esotropia, with only 2 patients requiring surgical intervention. Posterior segment abnormalities were identified in five patients without accompanying visual deficits. Two patients had ocular tumors: one with retinoblastoma and one with retinal astrocytic hamartoma. There was no association between TS karyotype and occurrence of ocular abnormalities. CONCLUSION: Ophthalmic manifestations of TS were common, particularly ametropia and strabismus. Management of strabismus was conservative in the vast majority of patients. Ocular manifestations were not associated with TS karyotype. Early screening and routine ophthalmic evaluation of patients with TS is needed to prevent progression of potentially vision-threatening abnormalities.

DOI 10.1080/13816810.2022.2045512