Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Congenital anomalies necessitating prolonged fasting have a high mortality in low-income settings, partially due to malnutrition and electrolyte disturbances in the absence of parenteral nutrition (PN). Interventions to address these problems require an accurate baseline quantification of the morbidity and mortality of this population. This prospective study aimed to determine peri-operative morbidity, fluid and electrolyte disturbance, growth, and mortality in neonates with gastroschisis (GS), intestinal atresia (IA), and esophageal atresia (EA) in Uganda. METHODS: Standardized patient care of 45 neonates treated in Uganda from Oct 2021 to March 2022 with protocolized fluid and nutrition, vital signs, and routine laboratory measurements. Patient demographics, admission and hospital characteristics are described with mean ± SD. Characteristics of survivors and non-survivors were compared with Fischer's exact tests, logrank tests, and CoX Ph model. RESULTS: Twenty-eight (62.2%) patients had GS, 4 (8.9%) EA, and 13 (28.9%) IA. Thirty-six percent (16/44) of patients survived to discharge (26% GS, 50% EA, 54% IA) with an average length of stay of 17.3 days ( ± 2.2) (survivors) and 9 days ( ± 1.7) (non-survivors). Average weight was 2.21 kg ( ± 0.62) at presentation, with no significant weight change during the study. Abnormal serum sodium in 64%, phosphate 36.5%, and magnesium 20.8% of measurements. Mortality did not correlate with diagnosis (p = 0.47), electrolyte derangement, or weight change. CONCLUSION: Mortality of neonates born with GS, EA, and IA is high in Uganda. Malnutrition and fluid/electrolyte derangements are common and may affect mortality. This study provides a comparison group for studying interventions to improve outcomes for these populations. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective cohort. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3.

DOI 10.1016/J.JPEDSURG.2023.01.025