The expansion of knowledge regarding driver mutations for Wilms tumor (WT) and malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRT) and various translocations for other pediatric renal tumors opens up new possibilities for diagnosis and treatment. In addition, there are growing data surrounding prognostic factors that can be used to stratify WT treatment to improve outcomes. Here, we review the molecular landscape of WT and other pediatric renal tumors as well as WT prognostic factors. We also review incorporation of circulating tumor DNA/liquid biopsies to leverage this molecular landscape, with potential use in the future for distinguishing renal tumors at the time of diagnosis and elucidating intratumor heterogeneity, which is not well evaluated with standard biopsies. Incorporation of liquid biopsies will require longitudinal collection of multiple biospecimens. Further preclinical research, identification and validation of biomarkers, molecular studies, and data sharing among investigators are crucial to inform therapeutic strategies that improve patient outcomes.

DOI 10.1002/PBC.30130