Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging is used commonly in neurointerventional surgery for rapid intraprocedural assessment and planning of intracranial interventions. Our goal was to evaluate the ability of immediate postprocedural CBCT scan in assessing potential complications in pediatric patients. A retrospective review was completed to include all pediatric patients at our hospital with an immediate postprocedural CBCT scan with the Artis Q system. Demographic, clinical, and imaging data were examined. CBCT images were reviewed by 3 independent neurointerventionalists to assess ventricular system/subarachnoid spaces, gray-white differentiation, and ischemia or hemorrhage if present. Each assessment was rated qualitatively on a 4-point scale and was compared with conventional computed tomography (cCT) scan when available. Interrater reliability was assessed and radiation dose data were reviewed. Thirty-five patients were included with an average age of 11.0 ± 5.1 years (median, 10.9; range, 1.1-18 years). Of the patients, 54.3% were boys; 34.3% were Hispanic and 34.3% were non-Hispanic white. Diagnoses included a variety of vascular pathologies. CBCT scan had a mean score of 2.69 ± 0.54 out of 3 for ventricular and subarachnoid space assessment with a combined interrater reliability of 0.82, 1.71 ± 1.38 for hemorrhage with a combined interrater reliability of 1.00, and 0.52 ± 0.60 for gray-white differentiation with a combined interrater reliability of 0.79. Immediate postprocedural CBCT images were adequate to detect ventricular size/subarachnoid spaces changes and large volume hemorrhage compared with cCT scan in pediatric patients. However, there are limitations using immediate CBCT images to detect small volume hemorrhage and ischemic changes.

DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.12.003